As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world’s human population, especially in Asia. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn).
Rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans.
Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labour costs and high rainfall, as it is labour-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
The seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process, the product is called BROWN RICE. The milling may be continued, removing the bran, the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby creating WHITE RICE. White rice, which keeps longer, lacks some important nutrients.
The many varieties of rice, for many purposes, are distinguished as long-, medium-, and short-grain rices. The grains of fragrant long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking; medium-grain rice becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy and many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi; the stickiness lets the rice be moulded into a solid shape. Short-grain rice is often used for rice pudding.
Rice production in India
Rice production in India is an important part of the national economy.
India is one of the world’s largest producers of white rice and brown rice, accounting for 20% of all world rice production. Rice is India’s pre-eminent crop, and is the staple food of the people of the eastern and southern parts of the country. Thanks to its rich soil, India is known for producing some of the finest varieties of rice. Basmati rice is globally renowned for its unique smell and delicate flavour and Indian basmati rice is highly demanded in the worldwide market.
Following are the main varieties of rice produced in India:
Medium Grain Rice
Short Grain Rice
Rice Production in Indonesia
Although Indonesia is the third-largest country regarding global rice production, it is still a rice importer. This situation is caused by farmers’ use of non-optimal production techniques in combination with large per capita rice consumption. In fact, Indonesia has the largest per capita rice consumption in the world with Indonesians consuming around 140 kilogram of rice per person per year.
Rice production in Pakistan
Rice production in Pakistan holds an extremely important position in agriculture and national economy. Pakistan is the world’s fourth largest producer of rice, after China, India and Indonesia. This country is responsible for supplying 30% of the world’s paddy rice output. Among the most famous varieties grown in Pakistan include the Basmati, known for its flavor and quality.
Super Basmati Rice
Super Fine Rice
Pk-385 Basmati Rice
PK-198 Basmati Rice
D-98 Basmati Rice
PK-386 Long Grain Rice
KS-282 Long Grain Rice
C9 Long Grain Rice
Irri-9 Long Grain Rice
Irri-6 Long Grain Rice
D.R Long Grain Rice
515 Super Basmati Rice
Rice production in Thailand
Rice Production in Thailand represents a significant portion of the Thai economy and labour force.
Thailand has a strong tradition of rice production. It has the fifth-largest amount of land under rice cultivation in the world and is the world’s second largest exporter of rice. The most produced strain of rice in Thailand is Jasmine rice, which is a higher quality type of rice. However, we can find also :
White Glutinous rice
Black Glutinous rice
Red Cargo rice
Rice production in Vietnam
Vietnam is one of world’s richest agricultural regions and is the second-largest (after Thailand) exporter worldwide and the world’s seventh-largest consumer of rice. Rice is a staple of the national diet and is seen as a “gift from God”. It is especially cultivated in the Mekong and Red River deltas.
There are many types of rice in Vietnam. However the most popular varieties are the usual white rice (eaten during every meal), jasmine rice (moist rice commonly used by the upper class), sweet or sticky rice known as xôi or glutinous rice (steamed rice sweetened and mixed with condiments eaten for breakfast or as a dessert dish) and broken rice (converted to Com Tam by steaming (common in restaurants); each has its own uniqueness.